According to a June, 1939 article in Tops Magazine, an Independent Magazine of Magic entitled "Primitive Sword Swallowing", a primitive tribe in Papua New Guinea uses a form of "vine-swallowing" in the initiation rites of teens being initiated into adulthood. There was a video documentary filmed in the 1970s or 80s on this initiation rite of passage, showing many of the canes or vines being removed from the young men's throats covered in blood.It was reported that several of the initiates die each year from the perforations. T'ang Dynasty Illustration mid 8th century Chinese Ling Troupe 1915 Chinese Sword swallower 1915 Chinese Sword swallower Shanghai 1920s Chinese Sword swallower Shanghai 1920s Sword swallower in Shanghai Chinese Sword swallower 1927 Sword swallowing was popular in Japan in the 8th century and was often seen as part of an acrobatic form of entertainment known as Sangaku, which also featured juggling, tightrope walking, contortion, and other related skills.
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Some are religious entertainers hired to chant the zikr dirge, and some only perform Dervish ceremonies on special occasions.
Dervishes are known for working themselves into frenzies and committing great feats of strength (this is where we get the term "Whirling Dervishes").
Raumur had shown, in 1752, that digestion was due to the solvent power of gastric juice.
Stevens confirmed this, isolated human gastric juice, and performed experiments both in vitro and in vivo in man and animals.
They were filled, according to Reaumer's method, with pieces of meat. Stevens inaugural dissertation, De alimentorum concoctione, (1777) presented with ingenuity and insight his experiments and observations on gastric digestion, and clearly confirmed him as the first investigator to isolate human gastric juice.
After a certain length of time, he would have the sword swallower disgorge the tubes, and in this way he observed to what degree the process of digestion had taken place. It removed the confusion and contradictions presented in the doctrines of fermentation and trituration, the latter championed by Leeuwenhoek, Borelli, Pitcairn, and Pecquet, and decried by Astruc and Stephen Hales.
One of the Dervish orders founded in 1182 was the order of Rifais who eat glass, walk on hot coals, and swallow swords.
Sword swallowing spread north from Greece and Rome into Europe at the hands of medieval jongleurs and other street performers who performed in public areas.
It was also probably the sword-swallower who showed the physicians to what extent the pharynx could be habituated to contract, and from this resulted the invention of the tube of Faucher, the esophageal sound, lavage of the stomach, and illumination of this organ by electric light. from Kings College (now Columbia University) in 1774; and the following year he began studies at the University of Edinburgh, enrolling in the medical school in 1776 and again in 1777. It also repudiated such views as those of John Pringle and David Macbride.